Evacuations from hazardous areas are a standard part of the tool kit of the US emergency manager.The protocols vary from place to place, and they are still ironing out some of the problems in some areas. It doesn’t appear to be a universal or mandatory obligation.
- Evacuation route in Washington DC. The public is expected to know when a “snow emergency” is declared, and then not to park on these routes to enable the snow ploughs to operate unimpeded. Cars would be towed away for the ignorant.
- Tsunami evacuation route sign, waterfront, San Francisco
There are many times an evacuation isn’t possible: tornadoes and rapidly moving fires come to mind. Evacuations are, however, a significant and expected part of the warning system.
Like Australia police have various laws they can use to force people to evacuate, but in reality, they will be very reluctant to physically remove a person from their home if they want to try and defend it. Persuasion is their most effective tool. One Canadian emertency manager said: There are rules that can be put in place to remove children from dangerous places.” That soon convinces parents to follow.
An American emergency agency staff member said the following phrase is persuasive: “Before I go I need to know how tall you are so I can bring the right size body bag back.”
The law is outlined in Community Wildfire Protection Plans, which are implemented in nearly all fire prone regions. This is from Lane County in California:
A county, city or municipal corporation may authorize an agency or official to order mandatory evacuations of residents and other individuals after a declaration of a state of emergency within the jurisdiction is declared. An evacuation under an ordinance or resolution authorized by this section shall be ordered only when necessary for public safety or when necessary for the efficient conduct of activities that minimize or mitigate the effects of the emergency
(ORS 401.309). BE AWARE; after a mandatory evacuation order goes into effect emergency responders will notrisk their lives to save you should you choose to stay at your home after the order
Evacuation procedures need to be planned and trained for. Many roads have warning signs along them which are opened only when an evacuation is in place, restricting travel on the whole road to one direction.
The public needs to know when to evacuate, and where to go. Clearly this is a business that needs good local pre-planning. Doug Gantt, Fire Manager Officer with The US Forest Service says: “You have to front load all this stuff.”
It is the decision of the Incident Controller who will advise the Sheriff that the fire threatens homes or a community, and the evacuation is carried out by law enforcement officers.
During the Pondarosa Fires, Shingletown was issued with a “voluntary evacuation notice,” which was superseded about two hours later by a “mandatory evacuation notice.”
Down at Manton when the fire was out of control and time was much shorter, things worked a little differently. One genteel soul told me (after advising me to cover my ears) “The sheriff’s car drove into my drive, sounded the siren, and he yelled:”You’d better get the fuck outta here.”
This is how the evacuation notices unfolded for the multiple fires in the Wenatchee Fire complex in Washington State from September 11, 2012. The web site contains all the details of the way the evacuations launched, ramped up, and then gradually were downgraded.
This is how the the first warning was posted on Inciweb:
Incident: Wenatchee Complex Wildfire
Level 1, 2, and 3 Evacuation Status is akin to a “Ready, Set, Go” level of evacuation notices with Level 1 asking residents to be ready to evacuate if conditions change, Level 2 means residents should be set to go at a moment’s notice, Level 3 means authorities are advising residents to evacuate because their homes are in imminent danger (under Level 3, residents will not be allowed to return to their homes until fire danger decreases).
Evacuations remain in place for the following areas affected by the Byrd Canyon Fire:
· Downey Canyon – Level 1
· State Route 971 Navarre Coulee Road (east side) – Level 2
· State Route 971 Navarre Coulee Road (west side) – Level 3
· State Route 97A Tunnel to Davis Canyon – Level 3
· State Route 97A from Byrd Canyon to State Route 971 – Level 3
The explanations at the top of the warning were inserted because the fire managers werent confident the community was fully aware of the evacuation procedures. No survey has been done about how many people evacuated, or when, but no-one died or was injured.
Over time the evacuation levels were reduced.